Pdf variable geometry turbocharger technologies for. Variable geometry wind turbine technologies for performance. Us7882694b2 variable fan inlet guide vane assembly for. This paper investigates a variable geometry vg mixed flow turbine with a novel, purposely designed pivoting nozzle vane ring. Variable geometry turbochargers vgts, occasionally known as variable nozzle turbines vnts, are a type of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio of the turbocharger to be altered as conditions change. Product information variable turbine geometry vtg the.
The variable phase turbine is a patented, hermetic turbine generator that generates power from twophase, transcritical, and singlephase expansions. Typically, the variablegeometry turbocharger turbine power is modeled with a fixed mechanical efficiency of the. Vgt technology also known as vntvariable nozzle turbocharger is. This is achieved by varying a set of aerodynamic vanes which direct the exhaust gas flow onto the turbine wheel. Anyway, this choice has been done considering the possibility of a variable geometry mechanism, designed to improve the response of the turbine and thus of the engine in the conditions of lower flow rates and pressures of the exhausts. Turbochargers with variable turbine geometry vtg in all tdi engines from audi, the turbochargers have variable turbine geometry on the exhaust side. Effect of variable geometry turbocharger vgt on diesel.
Variable geometry exhaust manifold turbocharging system. The sump where oil collects before returning to the oil tank is located in the accessory auxiliary gearbox. Figure 2 while in turbine operation the head losses are subtracted from the static head. Thrust performance of a variablegeometry, nonaxisymmetric. Variable geometry turbine systems are closely monitored for boost, exhaust back pressure, and compressor inlet and outlet temperature, so that failure generates one or more trouble codes. Where the turbine engine is a tip turbine engine, the variable fan inlet guide vanes permit the ability to control engine stability even though the fanturbine rotor assembly is directly coupled to the axial compressor at a fixed rate.
Aug 16, 2006 variable turbine geometry technology is the next generation in turbocharger technology where the turbo uses variable vanes to control exhaust flow against the turbine blades. The variable geometry turbocharger has a mechanism by which the inlet area can be varied to achieve the optimal ar for a given flow rate. The vane angles of vnt are adjusted with the help of an actuator. The variable geometry singleentry volute was later modified to twinentry through partitioning. As the angle of the vanes change, the angle of air flow onto the turbine blades changes, which changes the effective area of the turbine.
Mar 03, 2009 variable turbine geometry ionatanpopa. It was found that for a nozzle vane ring in a volute, the vane surface pressure is highly affected by. With boost comes torque, which results in lowrpm flexibility unmatched since the days of steam. Musgrove in 1975 led a research project at reading university in the uk whose purpose was to attempt to rationalize the geometry of the blades by straightening out the blades of a darrieus type wind turbine. A variable geometry turbomachine is basically a combination of different fixed geometry turbomachines, which uses movable valves to optimize the efficiency at various service requirements. Variablegeometry turbochargers also known as variable nozzle turbovnts, are one of type of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio ar ratio of the turbine to be changed as conditions change. While a twin scroll turbine could in principle also incorporate a variable geometry nozzle, for example by using a movable divider wall separating the twin scrolls. Smith laboratory of thermal turbomachines national technical university of athens. The tsr is the ratio of the speed of the tips of the blades to the incoming wind speed. Variablegeometry turbochargers vgts, occasionally known as variablenozzle turbines vnts, are a type of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio of the turbocharger to be altered as conditions change. Variablegeometry turbochargers vgts, occasionally known as variablenozzle turbines vnts, are a type of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the. Variable geometry turbine diesel engine troubleshooting. The fan inlet guide vanes may be actuated from an inner diameter of the fan inlet guide. The porsche variable turbine geometry vtg turbocharger is the first to be included in a commercially available gasolinepowered engine.
The maximum pump net head is determined by adding the head losses to the static head see. Variable turbine geometry vtg technology builds up torque smoothly and without delay, even at low engine speeds. Pdf variable geometry turbocharger technologies for exhaust. While this solution found its way into turbo diesel engines over 20 years ago, the higher exhaust gas temperatures found in porsches forced induction petrol motors around 1,000 degrees celsius made implementing this solution difficult. Variable geometry turbochargers are also called as variable nozzle turbine vnt. Most relevant lists of abbreviations for vtg variable turbine geometry. Consequently the maximum net head in pump mode is larger than the maximum net head in turbine mode. Feb 10, 2014 one goal of a regulated turbine is to expand the usable flow rate range in practical applications while maintaining a high level of efficiency. Unesco eolss sample chapters thermal power plants vol.
Fixedspeed and variableslip wind turbines providing. Variable geometry mixed flow turbine for turbochargers. The standard 585 variablearea nozzle control, which is. Variable geometry turbine vgt turbochargers include a throttling mechanism on the exhaust inlet to generate boost at engine speeds just above idle. The variablegeometry turbocharger has a mechanism by which the inlet area can be varied to achieve the optimal ar for a given flow rate. Journal of robotics and mechanical engineering research aeroengines intake. A turbocharger outfitted with variable turbine geometry has small movable vanes pivoted on the supporting ring, which can direct exhaust flow gases from exhaust to the turbine blades. The hydraulic layout of a pump turbine is done as a pump. Geometry turbocharged vgt diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation egr has.
In this work, variable geometry is used to enable a maintained gas turbine exhaust gas temperature in partload, thereby improving the efficiency of the rankine cycle. Increased part load efficiency can also be obtained by implementing a variable geometry inside the turbine. This webinar demonstrates how to perform an internal flow analysis of a variable turbine geometry vtg turbocharger by using a rotating reference frame to model the impeller. Variable geometry turbochargers are turbochargers whose geometry and thus effective ar can be altered as needed while in use. Tutorial on variable geometry turbocharger vgt systems, working principles. Pdf as emissions regulations become increasingly demanding, higher power density engine downsizeddownspeeded and increasingly. Figure 4 performance of the newly developed vg innovation 3. Variable geometry turbomachine technology is used in turbocharger of diesel engines, where the turbo has variable vanes which control the flow of exhaust onto the turbine blades. Controloriented turbine power model for a variable. To accomplish this, the turbine output is regulated. As a result, the proposed model eliminates the inter polation errors with smooth extension to operational conditions outside typically mapped regions. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine partload performance.
Variable geometry exhaust manifold turbocharging system for. To predict the aerodynamic performance of the novel variable geometry turbocharger, the flow field of the turbine was simulated using transient computational fluid dynamics software combined with. The standard 585 variable area nozzle control, which is. Rows of movable vanes or fan blades are visible just inside the turbine inlet. Pdf on sep 4, 2017, apostolos pesiridis and others published conceptual design of a variable geometry, axial flow turbocharger turbine find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. A unique, patented abb design reduces the clearance between the. Effect of variable geometry turbocharger vgt on diesel engine.
Performance and flowfield assessment of an egr pulse. The turbine and compressor models were also coupled to a simple combustion model to evaluate the performance of the equationbased model versus the mapbased model. The biggest contributor is the rotating inertia of the turbine. But torque is a sideeffectvgt is an emissionscontrol expedient, intended to reduce nox levels. Variable geometry turbocharger vgt is a common feature in modern diesel. Chaplin encyclopedia of life support systems eolss figure 4. Variable geometry wind turbine technologies for performance enhancement, improved survivability and reduced cost of energy glen whitehouse, robert mckillip, todd quackenbush, marc sibilia and alan bilanin continuum dynamics, inc. Variable geometry turbocharger technologies for exhaust. To accomplish this, the turbine output is regulated by changing the inflow angle and inflow speed at the turbine wheel inlet. Consequently, combining interpolation between maps for an.
For these tests the standard axisymmetric, variable area exhaust nozzle was replaced with a twodimensional, convergentdivergent nozzle. In all tdi engines from audi, the turbochargers have variable turbine geometry on the exhaust side. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the partload. Variable geometry turbochargers turbochargers, whose geometry can be altered as required when in use, are called variable geometry turbochargers. These are mostly turbofan engines and to a less extent turboprop engines.
The variable geometry exhaust manifold vgem turbocharging system can realize the switch between two charging modes by the switching valve, and it can give a good performance both at the high load operation and the low load operation. For any wind turbine, a set of curves known as the c p versus tip speed ratio tsr describes the aerodynamic characteristics of thewind turbine rotor. In this work, it is not desirable to model any specific components but rather to model variable geometry in an approximate, generic way in the context. Us9003768b2 variable fan inlet guide vane assembly. A variable geometry vg turbocharger for passenger cars. Emeara2 1professor of aerospace, mechanical power department, faculty of engineering, zagazig university, egypt 2assistant lecturer, mechanical power department, faculty of engineering zagazig university, egypt. A variable geometry vg turbocharger for passenger cars to. Now, the large capacity balances high efficiency by adjusting leading edge incidence and blade height.
Pdf an artificial neural network methodology was applied to variable geometry turbine. Additionally a variable geometry turbine vgt technology is incorporated into the axialinflow turbine to additionally benefit both efficiency and performance. Pdf conceptual design of a variable geometry, axial flow. Variable turbine geometry vtg is a turbocharger technology which, by using movable inlet guide vanes to regulate the speed and angle at which the exhaust gas flow strikes the turbine blades, controls the gas mass flow and with it the turbine power. A turbocharger equipped with variable turbine geometry has little movable vanes which can direct exhaust flow onto the turbine blades.
In turn this can alter the effective araspect ratio. Physicsbased turbine power models for a variable geometry. The execution time of the equationbased model was about 400 times lower than the mapbased method. Conceptual design of a variable geometry, axial flow turbocharger turbine 2017240163 the modern automotive industry is under strict regulations to reduce emissions to comply with the kyoto protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. If the guide vanes in the compressor can be turned, it is possible to adjust the mass flow rate through the gas turbine to the required part load value. Variable geometry turbochargers also known as variable nozzle turbovnts, are one of type of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio ar ratio of the turbine to be changed as conditions change. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the partload performance of marine combined cycles combined cycle performance, applied thermal engineering 2010, doi. Pdf variable geometry turbine vgt strategies for improving. Generally, due to different kinds of service requirements many different kinds of pump or turbine are used. The annular combustor discharges into a twostage turbine. A variable geometry turbocharger has movable vanes which direct the flow of exhaust onto the turbine blades. Variable turbine geometry vtg one goal of a regulated turbine is to expand the usable flow rate range in practical applications while maintaining a high level of efficiency. Dambrosiodiesel engine variable geometry turbine turbocharger controlled by a multiagentbased algorithm proc inst mech eng part d j automob eng, 222 2008, pp. Jan 19, 2015 variable geometry turbochargers turbochargers, whose geometry can be altered as required when in use, are called variable geometry turbochargers.
This is done because the optimum aspect ratio at low engine speeds is very different from that at high engine speeds. Turbine engine design and construction 33 accessory section page 36 to 39 key points 1. Reaction turbine blading and conditions figure 3 shows, at the top, the end view of four stages of fixed and moving blades of an. Variable turbine geometry technology is the next generation in turbocharger technology where the turbo uses variable vanes to control exhaust flow against the turbine blades. A variable turbine geometry turbocharger is also known as a variable geometry turbocharger vgt, or a variable nozzle turbine vnt. Therefore the public acceptance to realize them is low and the approval proc ess to build may take long and is difficult. Variable turbine geometry vtg borgwarner turbo systems. In a nutshell, variable geometry turbochargers vgt are combining the benefits. Analysis of a gearless mediumvoltage variable speed gas turbine. As the egr rate varies hence i 6 ivaries the variable geometry vanes will optimize the inlet flow area to the turbine wheel i. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the partload performance for gas and steam turbine combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. If the driver presses the gas pedal down firmly at a low engine speed, the turbine blades move to a steep angle. Variable turbine geometry was introduced on the first generation of porsche 997 turbo.
Energent has designed variable phase turbines for process applications including lng, ethylene, and ammonia production, as well as other industrial. European automobiles control vane pitch and turbo boost with a stepper motor. Conceptual design of a variable geometry, axial flow. In order to model a given variable geometry compressor or turbine accurately, sets of maps would be required because each vgv or van angle represents a unique geometry and hence has its own map. When the switching valve is closed during the low load or transient response operation, the vgem turbocharging system works as a pulse turbocharging system. Variable geometry turbocharger technologies for exhaust energy. All technologies however share the common goal of using a nozzlelike system, or other movable components, to provide a variable cross sectional area. The conventional turbine wheel design was problematic due to its turbine efficiency degradation in the smalldiameter and largecapacity wheel.
In the small scroll instead, the presence of variable geometry vanes is made necessary in order to support egr operations. This last aspect makes this kind of model ideal for modelbased control strategies. Analysis of a variable turbine geometry turbocharger. The unsteady performance of a twinentry variable geometry turbine for an automotive turbocharger is presented. The most common design includes several adjustable vanes around a central turbine. This flexibility can be used for improving low speed torque characteristics, reducing turbocharger lag and in diesel engines, driving egr flow. Some of these new technologies and products are described in the sections below. While the egr valve positioning has an intuitive convention, as egr 0% means fully closed and no gas recirculation, a clari. The nozzle vane ring was matched to the 3dimensional aspect of the mixed flow rotor leading edge with lean stacking.
Variable geometry turbines vgt are being increasingly used in advanced diesel. Conceptual design of a variable geometry, axial flow turbocharger turbine 2017240163 the modern automotive industry is under strict regulations to reduce emissions to comply with the kyoto protocol, a universally acknowledged. Controloriented turbine power model for a variablegeometry. A turbine engine includes a plurality of variable fan inlet guide vanes. These units are rather expensive and are of ten designed as large scale plants. Identifying faults in the variable geometry system of a gas turbine compressor 0033. For these tests the standard axisymmetric, variablearea exhaust nozzle was replaced with a twodimensional, convergentdivergent nozzle.
There are many designs to this, but the most common one consists of several adjustable vanes around the turbine. Compared to a fixed geometry turbine, the variable geometry turbine allows significant flexibility over the pressure ratioflow relationship across the turbine and by extension, the engine. One goal of a regulated turbine is to expand the usable flow rate range in practical applications while maintaining a high level of efficiency. When the switching valve is closed during the low load or transient response operation, the vgem turbocharging system. And for a particular type of operating requirements we require. However, one advantage of the dual volute turbine is that it is much easier to combine the benefits of a variable geometry nozzle into a pulse turbine, figure 33 2546. Benefits of variable geometry turbochargers welcome to. A singleentry variable geometry turbine was initially designed based on a commercial nozzleless turbine. The main accessory section of a turbine engine is most often mounted externally on the engine at the position. Analysis of a gearless mediumvoltage variable speed gas. Unlike conventional turbochargers, vtgs have actuators that can reposition the vanes to maximize their ability to capture.998 1636 1195 236 1507 1600 1084 1420 597 1141 248 587 1351 665 115 354 1540 718 8 1027 98 873 251 23 281 954 794 340 1351 118 1610 103 113 1087 626 1185 1369 323 988 482 301 270 912 1135 1112 1262 1169 1304