The plcs importance to marketing decision makers is to help identify appropriate strategies and tactics for presenting a product. Marketers use the product life cycle to follow this progression and identify strategies to influence it. Every stage poses different opportunities and challenges to the marketer. Product life cycle and marketing management strategies. Although it was originally produced for medicinal purposes, the. In theory, its a lot like the life cycle that people go through. Siklus hidup produk product life cycle ini yaitu suatu grafik yang menggambarkan riwayat produk sejak diperkenalkan ke pasar sampai dengan ditarik dari pasar. Product life cycle is defined as, the cycle through which every product goes through from introduction to withdrawal or eventual demise. The product life cycle can vary for different products and different product categories. In business terms, the product lifecycle, in a marketing context, is all the stages of a product s life span that are related to its promotion and sales. This means that there is diet coke, coke zero, cherry coke, vanilla coke, and etcetera to be moldable into everyones daily routine. Explain how marketing strategy changes during a products lifecycle.
In general, this involves early investment to help secure revenue later on. Strategies for the different stages of the product life cycle introduction. Stage of the product life cycle, business strategy, and. Siklus hidup produk adalah suatu konsep penting yang memberikan pemahaman tentang dinamika kompetitif suatu produk. Frank bass offered a model to predict the product life cycle in 1969. Marketers call this process the product life cycle four stages that a product goes through over its life. Progression along the product life cycle alone, without any change in the process used i. New product pricing strategies when robosapien was introduced to the market, it had little direct competition in its product. This is the case not only for living beings, but also for consumer products.
Product lifecycle management plm is an integrated, informationdriven. Developing the product strategy via product life cycle. It is a strategy tool that helps companies plan for new product development and refine existing products. They proposed a product process matrix ppmx where for each plc stage there should be a proper match to the choice of the production process forming the process life cycle. Explain how companies find and develop new product ideas list and define the steps in the new product development process and the major considerations in managing this process describe the. Versions of products not listed are currently in either the invest or maintain stages in the lifecycle. Product development introduction growth maturity decline product development product development not only consists of new products but also involves existing product improvements, and modifications. Sales and profits over the product s life from inception to demise product life cycle 10 applications of the product life cycle the plc concept can describe a. The product life cycle consist of four stages starting from introduction stage, growth. The product life cycle concept is also a useful framework for describing the typical evolution of marketing strategy over the product life cycle.
Possible stages of the product life cycle are shown in fig. Impact of the product life cycle on marketing strategy. If the market accepts a product, the growth stage will. We will invest significantly behind these launches and support our innovations. Even a handful of uniquely cosmopolitan and uptodate corporate presidents. He devised a syrup that was placed into a jug in order to be sampled at a local pharmacy in atlanta, georgia.
Marketing strategies of smes based on product life cycle a. Product life cycle analysis is the sequence of strategies by management as a product goes through its life cycle. Product life cycle strategies consist of five basic stages. Marketing strategies used in introduction stages include. Nov 29, 2018 the product life cycle plc describes the stages of a product from launch to being discontinued. Each of these situations presents the key moments in the development of a strategy for the future of the product. Hayes and wheelwright 1979 separated the life cycle concept from a related but different issue that they called process life cycle. Pdf the product life cycle theory and product line. Products generally go through a life cycle with predictable sales and profits. Benefits and limitations of product life cycle plc. The concept is based on a simple biological analogy of stages over a products life, which is intuitively appealing, but unfortunately has limited utility in practice. The product life cycle describes the period of time over which an item is developed, brought to market and eventually removed from the market. We only know which stage we have been in after it has been completed.
Product passes through four stages of its life cycle. Stages include introduction, growth, maturity and decline and are explained in. In business terms, the product lifecycle, in a marketing context, is all the stages of a product s life span that are. The lifecycle of cocacola pennsylvania state university. Life cycle strategy is based on product life cycle thinking from the field of marketing. Following the market launch, introduction stage represents initial sales of a product in the context of a limited and underdeveloped market. You can use various marketing strategies in each stage to try to prolong the life cycle of your products.
The product life cycle model describes how products go through the four phases of introduction, growth, maturity, and decline after they are launched. The concept is used as a tool to formulate marketing strategies appropriate to each of the stages. The product life cycle is a marketing theory cycle or succession of strategies experienced by every product which begins with a products introduction, sometimes referenced as research and development, followed by its sales growth, then maturity and finally market saturation and decline. On the other hand, he made a biological analogy and coined the expression product life cycle in managerial context. Stages of the product life cycle principles of marketing. Products go through four distinct stages in the life cycle, each with its own unique marketing strategies. This article is focusing on a number of the primary product life cycle management techniques that can be used to optimize a product s revenues in respect to its effective positioning in a market during the introduction stage of the product life cycle. The above diagram depicts a typical product life cycle. Life cycle strategy is developed by a firm to ensure that the demand for its discrete businesses is extended as long as feasibly possible. Ronald, 2002 considered the impact of product life cycle on reverse logistics. Learning objectives after studying this chapter, you should be able to. The product life cycle plc concept is a wellknown marketing strategy and planning tool. The product life cycle theory and product line management. Each stage is associated with changes in the product s marketing position.
Then after a period of time, the product is overtaken by development and the introduction of superior competitors, goes into decline, and is eventually withdrawn. The management emphasis on the marketing mix elements. It proceeds through multiple phases, involves many professional disciplines and requires a multitude of skills, tools and processes. These considerations will help to be more successful in managing these strategies at the right time with combining product life cycle s staging strategies. The product life cycle is an important concept in marketing. Regardless of the success of a companys current product lineup, it must skilfully manage the product life cycles of existing products for future success. For the four stages introduction, growth, maturity and decline, we can identify specific product life cycle strategies. New product development and product life cycle strategies. A short product life cycle is one of the hallmarks of a fad. It describes the stages a product goes through from when it was first thought of until it finally is removed from the market. A model which draws an analogy between the span of a human life and that of a product, suggesting that, typically, a product s life consists of four stages. A study on the product life cycle of samsung smartphones in india national seminar on. The product life cycle contains four distinct stages. An explanation of the former model leads to an understanding of its perceived shortcomings, and the reason for the takeup.
The product life cycle plc is a series of phases that a product will go through in its lifetime in relation to the profits and sales that it will collect. It goes further than the scope of the product and is applied to. A guide to new product development product life cycle. It has implications for the marketing strategy of a firm as. Research and product development cocacola was created in 1886 by dr. Life is a series of developments and changes, resulting in peaks, decline and eventually, demise. Product life cycleproduct life cycle is the course of a product s sales and profits over time. Set of activities, benefits or satisfaction offered for sale intangible may not result in ownership what is a product. Useful to help demonstrate how marketing strategies can vary at different stages of a products life. A study on the product life cycle of samsung smartphones in. Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each life cycle stages.
Seperti halnya dengan manusia, suatu produk juga memiliki siklus atau daur hidup. In addition, hofer developed descriptive propositions for each stage of the. The product life cycle is the concept that a product goes through several stages in the course of its life. Some companies use strategic planning and others follow the basic rules of the different life cycle phase that are analyzed later. The four stages are shown in the table below, although decline can be avoided by reinventing elements of the product.
The product life cycle is a useful model when deciding possible stages of a product or service. Pricing strategy learning objectives 1 identify pricing strategies that are appropriate for new and existing products 2 understand the stages of the product life cycle. However, not all products go through all stages and the length of a stage varies. Product life cycle stages managing the product life cycle. The product lifecycle plc is a wellknown marketing concept initially developed in. Such product strategies look at the various stages the product is in the life cycle and then come up with the appropriate strategies. Iamabsolutelyconvincedthattheproductlifecyclehas thepotentialtoplayacentral,ifnotthecentralroleinour questtodevelopasolidtheorybasedfoundationformarketing practice.
A company has to be good at both developing new products and managing them in the face of changing tastes, technologies, and competition. Each of stages demands the unique or distinguished set of marketing strategies. Major changes in business strategy are usually required during three stages of the life cycle. Normally any strategic process has three distinct stages which are analy. Product life cycle and marketing management strategies ijert. A companys positioning and differentiation strategy must change as the product, market and competitors change over the product life cycleplc. Product life cycle stages and strategies marketing portfolio. The idea behind the plc concept is that companies must continually innovate. Not only that, but cocacola also encourages consumers to live balanced and active lifestyles through staying fit, hydrated, and healthy. Product life cycle product life cycle is a normative and descriptive model for the life of products in general the plcs importance to marketing decision makers is to help identify appropriate strategies. In other words, the life of a product is finite and advances through several stages i. The life of most products can be divided into five key stages. The resulting strategies will then affect the products performance in later product life cycle stages.
The product life cycle is the process a product goes through from when it is first introduced into the market until it declines or is removed from the market. As the product moves through different stages of its life cycle, sales volume and profitability change from stage to stage as shown in fig. The most obvious product development is the current apple iphone 6. The product life cycle is an excellent tool which can be used by business managers, strategists and marketing managers to come up with product strategies. Product life cycle shivani bhambri1 abstract product life cycle plc is the cycle through which every product goes through from introduction to withdrawal or eventual demise. The product life cycle contains five distinct stages. The case of mobile phones article pdf available in ieee transactions on engineering management 512. Sunset product version end of life date lead discovery 7.1326 1622 748 698 699 15 508 1557 946 687 1079 258 707 610 407 448 989 1549 1179 1461 1145 939 1405 270 815 958 401 243 1310 634 465 720 1077 1284 1229 362 1111 465 1141 1489 817 980